Leu-Wei Lo Ph.D.

Leu-Wei Lo, Ph.D.


Office ext. 37115

Lab ext. 37116


Lab website. 


  • 1992 - 1996
    Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA
    Ph.D., Molecular Biophysics
  • 1990 - 1992
    University of Massachusetts, USA
    M.S., Biochemistry/Chemistry
  • 1983 - 1987
    Tamkang University, Taiwan
    B.S., Applied Chemistry

Professional Experiences

  • 2017 - 2019
    Student Affairs Office, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
  • 2016 - present
    Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan
    Joint Professor
  • 2013 - present
    Ph.D. Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Biotechnology Center, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Joint Professor
  • 2013 - present
    Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
    Joint Professor
  • 2011 - 2015
    Department of Radiology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Chicago, IL, USA
    Visiting Senior Investigator and Director of Translational Nanotheranostics in Functional and Molecular Imaging Group (FMI)
  • 2010 - present
    Division of Medical Engineering Research/Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
  • 2010 - 2016
    Ph.D. Program for Aging, Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Joint Professor
  • 2010 - 2012
    Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Taiwan
    Adjunct Professor
  • 2009 - 2010
    Computing and Information Center, Department of Administration, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
    Acting Director
  • 2008 - 2010
    Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Taiwan
    Adjunct Associate Professor
  • 2006 - 2010
    Division of Medical Engineering, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
    Associate Investigator
  • 2001 - 2006
    Division of Medical Engineering, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
    Assistant Investigator
  • 2001 - 2006
    Institute of Biomedicine and Biomedical Technology, National Chi-Nan University, Taiwan
    Adjunct Assistant Professor
  • 2000 - 2001
    Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chi-Nan University, Taiwan
    Assistant Professor
  • 1997 - 2000
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academic Sinica, Taiwan
    Postdoctoral Fellow in Division of Cardiovascular Research
  • Research Interests

    Dr. Lo’s major research interests converge in the field of Translational Nanotheranostics — Illuminating Targeting Nanotherapeutics with Precision Molecular Imaging Innovations. It harnesses multidisciplinary approaches to advance biophotonic/radiological nanomedicine, especially in design and application of novel nanoplatforms for in vivo spectroscopy and the fusion of multimodality imaging-guided diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system injury.
    Keywords: Nanomedicine; Nanotheranostics; Biophotonics; Drug Targeted Delivery and Controlled Release; Molecular Imaging; Radiology

    Research Activities & Accomplishment

  • 2021 - present
    Editorial Board Member, Journal of Nanotheranostics
  • 2021 - 2022
    Guest Editor, Nanomaterials, Special Issue “Nanomaterials for Biophotonics: Prognosis and Therapeutics” (SCI Journal)
  • 2017 - present
    Review Editor, Frontiers in Chemistry (Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Section) (SCI Journal)
  • 2013 - present
    Associate Editor, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences (Molecular Diagnostics and Therapy Section) (SCI Journal)
  • 2013 - present
    Senior Editorial Board Member, American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (ESCI Journal)
  • 2011 - present
    Editorial Board Member, Theranostics (SCI Journal)
  • Dr. Lo also serves as Reviewers for over 60 SCI journals, including top-notch Nature Communications, Nature Materials, Nature Nanotechnology, and Nature Photonics; and as External Reviewers for official research funding organizations worldwide, such as SATW in Switzerland, MRC in UK, ANR and MATWIN in France, NOW in Netherland, and RGC in Hong Kong, etc.

  • 2021
    Fellow (FIAAM), endowed by International Association of Advanced Materials (IAAM), Sweden
  • 2021
    18th National Innovation Excelsior Award, Taiwan
  • 2020
    17th National Innovation Excelsior Award, Taiwan
  • 2019
    16th National Innovation Award, Taiwan
  • 2019
    Future Tech (FUTEX) Award, Highlighted Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan
  • 2018
    Taiwan Innotech Expo, Bronze Medal Award, Taiwan
  • 2016
    NHRI Outstanding Research Achievement Award, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
  • 2009
    NHRI Yang Investigator Research Achievement Award, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
  • 2003
    The Excellent Research Award (Instructor), honored by the Foundation of Taiwan Medical Development, Taiwan
  • 1998
    NHRI Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
  • 1998 – 2000
    Academia Sinica Postdoctoral Scholar, Taiwan
  • 1994 – 1996
    Biomedical Graduate Program Fellowship, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA
  • 1993 – 1994
    Predoctoral Fellowship of Tumor Metabolism Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA
  • 1991 – 1992
    Outstanding Teaching Assistant Award, Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, USA
  • Selected Publications

      *Over 100 refereed publications since 1996
    1. Chuang, Y.C., Chu, C.H., Cheng, S.H., Liao, D.L., Chu, T.S., Chen, N.T., Paldino, A., Hsia, Y., Chen, C.T., and Lo, L.W.* (2020) Annealing-modulated nanoscintillators for nonconventional X-ray activation of comprehensive photodynamic effects in deep cancer theranostics. Theranostics 10(15): 6758-6773; doi: 10.7150/thno.41752

    2. Chen, C.K., Huang, P.K., Law, W.C., Chu, C.H., and Lo, L.W.* (2020) Biodegradable polymers for gene-delivery applications. Inter. J. Nanomed. 15: 2131-2150.

    3. Chuang, Y.C., Hsia, Y., Chu, C.H., Lin, L.J., Sivasubramanian, M., and Lo, L.W.* (2019) Precision control of large-scaled green synthesis of biodegradable gold nanodandelions as potential radiotheranostics. Biomater. Sci. 7: 4720-4729; doi: 10.1039/C9BM00897G

    4. Sivasubramanian, M., Chuang, Y.C., Chen, N.T.*, and Lo, L.W.* (2019) Seeing better and going deeper in cancer nanotheranostics. Inter. J. Mol. Sci. 20: 3490; doi:10.3390/ijms20143490

    5. Souris, J.S., Zhang, H.J., Dougherty, U., Chen, N.T., Waller, J.V., Lo, L.W., Hart, J., Chen, C.T., and Bissonnette, M. (2019) A novel mouse model of sporadic colon cancer induced by combination of conditional Apc genes and chemical carcinogen in the absence of Cre recombinase. Carcinogenesis 40(11): 1376-1386; doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgz050

    6. Chen, N.T., Barth, E.D., Lee, T.H., Chen. C.T., Epel, B., Halpern, H., and Lo, L.W.* (2019) Highly sensitive electron paramagnetic resonance nanoradicals for quantitative intracellular tumor oxymetric imaging. Inter. J. Nanomed. 14: 2963-2971.

    7. Chu, C.H., Cheng, S.H., Chen, N.T., Liao, W.N., and Lo, L.W.* (2019) Microwave-synthesized platinum-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles as dual-modality contrast agents: computed tomography and optical imaging. Inter. J. Mol. Sci. 20: 1560; doi:10.3390 /ijms20071560

    8. Sivasubramanian, M., Chuang, Y.C., and Lo, L.W.* (2019) Evolution of nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy: from superficial to deep-seated cancers. Molecules 24(3): 520; doi:10.3390/molecules24030520

    9. Tew, L.S., Cai, M.T., Lo, L.W., Khung, Y.L., and Chen, N.T. (2018) Pollen-structured gold nanoclusters for X-ray induced photodynamic therapy. Materials 11(7): 1170.

    10. Sun, S.P., Liu, C.P., Huang, I.P., Chu, C.H., Chung, M.F., Cheng, S.H., Lin, S.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2017) A co-delivery nanosystem of chemotherapeutics and DNAzyme overcomes cancer drug resistance and metastasis. Nano Futures 1: 035005.

    11. Tsai, H.M., Souris, J., Kim, H., Cheng, S.-H., Chen, L., Lo, L.-W., Chen, C.-T., and Kao, C.-M. (2017) Note: Rapid measurement of fluorescence lifetimes using SiPM detection and waveform sampling. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88: 096107; doi: 10.1063/1.5003413.

    12. Quigley, B., Smith, C., Cheng, S.-H., Souris, J., Pelizzari, C., Chen, C.-T., Lo, L.-W., Reft, C., Wiersma, R.D., and La Riviere, P.J. (2017) Sensitivity evaluation and selective plane imaging geometry for X-ray induced luminescence imaging. Med. Phys. 44(10): 5367-5377.

    13. Chen, N.T., Souris, J.S., Cheng, S.H., Chu, C.H., Wang, Y.C., Konda, V., Dougher, U., Bissonnette, M.B., Mou, C.Y., Chen, C.T., and Lo, L.W.* (2017) Lectin-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for endoscopic detection of premalignant colonic lesions. Nanomedicine-Nanotechnol. Biol. Med. 13(6): 1941-1952.

    14. Lin, C.Y., Huang, J.Y. and Lo, L.W. (2017) Depicting Binding-mediated translocation of HIV-1 Tat peptides in living cells with nanoscale pens of Tat-conjugated quantum dots. Sensors 17(2): 315; doi: 10.3390/s17020315

    15. Chen, C.K., Lin, W.J., Hsia, Y., and Lo, L.W. (2016) Synthesis of polylactide-based core-shell interface cross-linked micelles for anticancer drug delivery. Macromol Biosci. doi: 10.1002/mabi.201600191

    16. Cheng, S.H., Tsai, H.M., Morshed R., Kanoija, D., Lo, L.W., Leoni, L., Zhang, L., Aboody, K., Lesniak M.S., Chen, C.T., and Balyasnikova, I.V. (2016) Dynamic in vivo SPECT imaging of neural stem cells functionalized with radiolabeled nanoparticles for tracking of glioblastoma. J. Nucl. Med. 57(2): 279-284.

    17. Lin, C.Y., Huang, J.Y., and Lo, L.W. (2016) Exploring in vivo cholesterol-mediated interactions between activated EGF receptors in plasma membrane with single-molecule optical tracking. BMC Biophysics 9: 6.

    18. Cheng, S.H., Yu, D, Tsai, H.M., Morshed R.A., Kanojia, D., Lo, L.W., Leoni, L., Govind, Y., Zhang, L., Aboody, K.S., Lesniak, M.S., Chen, C.T., Balyasnikova, I.V. (2015) Dynamic in vivo SPECT imaging of neural stem cells functionalized with radiolabeled nanoparticles for tracking of glioblastoma. J. Nucl. Med. November 12, jnumed.115.163006.

    19. Lin, C.Y., Huang, J.Y. and Lo, L.W. (March, 2015) Unraveling the impact of lipid domains on the dimerization processes of single-molecule EGFRs of live cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1848(3): 886-893.

    20. Lin, C.Y., Huang, J.Y. and Lo, L.W. (December 7, 2014) Energetic modeling and single-molecule verification of dynamic regulation on receptor complexes by actin corrals and lipid raft domains. J. Chem. Phys. 141(21): 215102. doi: 10.1063/1.4902985.

    21. Souris, J.S., Cheng, S.H., Pelizzari, C., Chen, N. T., La Riviere, P., Chen, C. T., and Lo, L.W.* (20, November, 2014) Radioluminescence characterization of in situ x-ray nanodosimeters: potential real-time monitors and modulators of external beam radiation therapy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20): 203110-5.

    22. Chung, M.F., Huang, C.M., Souris, J.S., and Lo, L.W.* (5, November, 2014) Controlled epitaxial growth of heterogeneous gold nanorod-mesoporous silica core-shell nanolollipop and nanodumbbell. APL Materials 2(11): 113312-8.

    23. Sivasubramanian, M. and Lo, L.W.* (2014) Silicon nanowires for green energy applications. Curr. Org. Chem. 18(18): 2442-2450.

    24. Cheng, S.H., Chu, C.H., Chen, N.T., Souris, J.S., Chen, C.T., and Lo, L.W.* (2014) Significant inhibition of tumor growth following single dose nanoparticle-enhanced photodynamic therapy. Int. J. Photoenergy vol. 2014, Article ID 297129, 11 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/297129.

    25. Chen, N.T., Tang, K.C., Chung, M.F., Cheng, S.H., Huang, C.M., Chu, C.H., Chou, P.T., Souris, J.S., Chen, C.T., Mou, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2014) Enhanced plasmonic resonance energy transfer in mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorod for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy. Theranostics 4(8): 798-807.

    26. Souris, J.S., Chen, N.T., Cheng, S.H., Chen, C.T., and Lo, L.W.* (March 27, 2014) “Silica nanoparticle platform” in Cancer Theranostics Ch. 20: 363-391, Shawn Chen and Stephen Wong, Ed., San Diego/London/Waltham: Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier (ISBN: 978-0-12-407722-5)

    27. Cheng, Y., Morshed, R., Cheng, S.H., Tobias, A., Auffinger, B., Wainwright, D.A., Zhang, L., Yunis, C., Han, Y., Chen, C.T., Lo, L.W., Aboody, K.S., Ahmed, A.U., Lesniak, M.S. (December 20, 2013) Nanoparticle-programmed self-destructive neural stem cells in glioblastoma targeting and therapy. Small 9(24): 4123-4129.

    28. Lin, C.Y., Huang, J.Y. and Lo, L.W. (October, 2013) Deciphering the catalysis-associated conformational changes of human adenylate kinase 1 with single-molecule spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. – B 117(45): 13947–13955.

    29. Lin, F.S., Liu, C.P., Tseng, S.Y., Luo, C.W., Chen, C.H., Chen, J.K., Tseng, F.G., Hwu, Y.K.; Lo, L.W., Yang, C.S., Lin, S.Y. (2013) In-situ Formation and Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles by Gum Arabic as Efficient Photothermal Agent for Killing Cancer Cells. Macromolecular Bioscience 13(10): 1314-1320.

    30. Chen, N.T., Cheng, S.H., Souris, J.S., Chen, C.T., Mou, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2013) Theranostic applications of mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their organic/inorganic hybrids J. Mater. Chem. B 1(25): 3128-3135.

    31. Wu, L.C., Chu, L.W., Lo, L.W., Liao, Y.C., Wang, Y.C., and Yang, C.S. (January 22, 2013) Programmable cellular retention of nanoparticles by replacing the synergistic anion of transferrin. ACS Nano 7(1): 365-75.

    32. Chen, N.T., Cheng, S.H., Liu, C.P., Souris, J.S., Chen, C.T., Mou, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2012) Recent advances in nanoparticle-based Förster resonance energy transfer for biosensing, molecular imaging, and drug release profiling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13: 16598-16623.

    33. Chen, N.T., Wu, C.Y., Chung, C.Y., Hwu, Y.K., Cheng, S.H., Yang, C.S., Mou, C.Y., Lo, L.W.* (2012) Dynamic monitoring of doxorubicin-DNA intercalation during apoptotic initiation using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. PLoS One 7(9): e44947.

    34. Huang, C.M., Cheng, S.H., Jeng, U.S., Yang, C.S., and Lo, L.W.* (2012) Formation of CdSe/CdS/ZnS–Au/SiO2 dual-yolk/shell nanostructures through a trojan–type inside-out etching strategy. Nano Res. 5(9): 654–666.

    35. Hsieh, H.Y., Huang, T.W., Xiao, J.L., Yang, C.S., Chang, C.C., Chu, C.C., Lo, L.W., Wang, S.H., Wang, P.C., Chieng, C.C., Lee, C.H., and Tseng, F.G. (2012) Fabrication and modification of dual-faced nano-mushrooms for tri-functional cell theranostics: SERS/fluorescence signaling, protein targeting, and drug delivery. J. Mater. Chem. 22: 20918-20928.

    36. Cheng, S.H., Li, F.C., Souris, J.S., Yang, C.S., Tseng, F.G., Lee, H.S., Dong, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2012) Visualizing dynamics of sub-hepatic distribution of nanoparticles using intravital multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. ACS Nano 6 (5): 4122–4131.

    37. Cheng, S.H., Hsieh, C.C., Chen, N.T., Chu, C.H., Huang, C.M., Chou, P.T., Tseng, F.G., Yang, C.S., Mou, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (December, 2011) Well-defined mesoporous nanostructure modulates three-dimensional interface energy transfer for two-photon activated photodynamic therapy. Nano Today 6(6): 552-563.

    38. Lin, S.Y, Wu, T.H., Jao, Y.C., Liu, C.P., Lin, H.Y., Lo, L.W., and Yang, C.S. (2011) Unraveling the photoluminescence puzzle of PAMAM dendrimers. Chem.-Eur. J. 17(26): 7158-7161.

    39. Wu, C.Y., Huang, C.K., Chung, C.Y., Huang, I.P., Hwu, Y.K., Yang, C.S., Lo, L.W.*, and Chiang, S.Y. (2011) Probing the binding kinetics of proinflammatory cytokine–antibody interactions using dual color fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy. Analyst 136(10): 2111-2118.

    40. Huang, I.P., Sun, S.P., Cheng, S.H., Lee, C.H., Wu, C.Y., Yang, C.S., Lo, L.W.,* and Lai, Y.K. (2011) Enhanced chemotherapy of cancer using pH-sensitive mesoporous silica nanoparticles to antagonize P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance. Mol. Cancer Ther. 10: 761-769.

    41. Lee, C.H., Cheng, S.H., Huang, I.P., Souris, J.S., Yang, C.S., Mou, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2010) Intracellular pH-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles for controlled release of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 49: 8214-8219.

    42. Lin, S.Y., Chen, N.T., Sum, S.P., Chang, C.H., Wang, Y.C., Yang, C.S., and Lo, L.W.* (2010) The protease-mediated nucleus shuttle of sub-nanometer gold quantum dot for real-time monitoring of apoptotic cell death. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(24): 8309-8315.

    43. Cheng, S.H., Chen, M.C., Lee, C.H., Souris, J.S., Tseng, F.G., Mou, C.Y., Yang, C.S., Chen, C.T., and Lo, L.W.* (2010) Tri-functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for comprehensive cancer theranostics- the trio of imaging, targeting and therapy. J. Mater. Chem. 20: 6149-6157.

    44. Souris, J.S., Lee, C.H., Cheng, S.H., Chen. C.T., Yang, C.S., Ho, J-a.A., Mou, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2010) Surface charge dependent hepatobiliary excretion of fluorescent mesoporous silica nanoparticles for use as traceable drug delivery platforms. Biomaterials 31: 5564-5574.

    45. Chen, L.C., Chen, W.W., Souris, J.S., Cheng, S.H., Yang, C.S., Chen, C.T., Li, P.C., and Lo, L.W.* (January/February, 2010) Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement. J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1): 016010.

    46. Tai, L.A., Tsai, P.J., Wang, Y.C., Wang, Y.J., Lo, L.W. and Yang, C.S. (March, 2009) Thermosensitive liposomes entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles for controllable drug release. Nanotechnology. 20(12): 135101-135109.

    47. Cheng, S.H., Lee, C.H., Yang, C.S., Tseng, F.G., Mou, C.Y., and Lo, L.W.* (2009) Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with oxygen-sensing probe for cell photo-therapy as potential cancer theranostics. J. Mater. Chem. 19(9): 1252-1257.

    48. Lee, C.H., Cheng, S.H., Wang, Y.J., Chen, Y.C., Chen, N.T., Souris, J.S., Chen, C.T., Mou, C.Y., Yang, C.S., and Lo, L.W.* (2009) Near-infrared mesoporous silica nanoparticles for optical imaging: characterization and in vivo biodistribution. Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(2): 215-222.

    49. Tu, H.L., Lin, Y.S., Lin, H.Y., Hung, Y., Lo, L.W., Chen, Y.F., and Mou, C.Y. (2009) In-vitro studies of functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy. Adv. Mater. 21(2): 172-177.

    50. Wang, Y.C., Wu, Y.T., Huang, H.Y., Lin, H.I., Lo, L.W., Tzeng, S.F., and Yang, C.S. (2008) Sustained intraspinal delivery of neurotrophic factor encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles following contusive spinal cord injury. Biomaterials 29: 4546-4553.

    51. Lin, S.Y., Chen, N.T., Sum, S.P., Lo, L.W.*, and Yang, C.S.* (2008) Ligand-exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptide for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging. Chem. Commun. 39: 4762-4764.

    52. Lee, C.H., Lo, L.W., Mou, C.Y., and Yang, C.S. (2008) Synthesis and characterization of positive-charge functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for oral drug delivery of an anti-inflammatory drug. Adv. Funct. Mater. 18: 3283-3292.

    53. Lo, L.W., Tsai, P.J., Huang, S.H., Wang, Y.T., Chang, C.H., and Yang, C.S. (2005) In vivo monitoring of fluorescent nanosphere delivery in anesthetized rats using an implantable fiber-optic microprobe. Anal. Chem. 77(4): 1125-1131.

    54. Yang, C.S., Chang, C.H., Tsai, P.J., Chen, W.Y., Tseng, F.G., and Lo, L.W.* (2004) Nanoparticle-based in vivo investigation on blood-brain barrier permeability under ischemia and reperfusion. Anal. Chem. 76(15):4465-4471.

    National Health Research Institutes - Institutional Repository: http://ir.nhri.org.tw/handle/3990099045/672


    1. Chuang, Y.C., Lo, L.W. “Precision Control of Large-Scale Green Synthesis of Biodegradable Gold Nanodandelions as Potential Radiotheranostics” (a) Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (1070003) 2019 Under Review; (b) Taiwan (ROC) (T-1070031) Notice of Allowance on 2020/11/26.
    2. Cheng, S.H.; Liao, W.N.; Yang, C.S., Lo, L.W. “Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for oil absorption” (a) US (USPTO) Provisional patent filed on 2012/12/21with attorney docket number: 10008-00001-PPA; (b) US (USPTO) No. US9185928 B2 issued on 2015/11/17; (c) Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) with international publications date 2014/06/26 and international publication number: WO 2014/100522 A1; (d) Europe (EPO) patent No. EP2934495 issued on 2017/04/11 (Registrations: Germany, UK, France, Spain, and Italy); (e) China (CN) patent No. CN104955446 issued on 2017/06/20; (f) Taiwan (ROC) No. I614017 issued on 2017/12/12; (g) Australia No. AU2013361217 A1 issued in 2019; (h) Canada No. 2,895,357 Notice of Allowance on 2019/05/08; (i) New Zealand No. 709368 issued in 2020.
    3. Lee, C. H.; Cheng, S. H.; Liao, W, N.; Chen, J. K.; Yang, C. S.; Lo, L. W.; Hwu, Y.; Lin, F. S. “Solid phase gold nanoparticle synthesis” (a) US (USPTO) filed on 2011/05/17 with filing number: 13/109,438; (b) Taiwan (ROC) filed on 2011/0/18 with filing number: 100117467.

    4. Lee, C. H.; Mou C. Y.; Lo, L. W.; Yang, C. S. “Drug delivery system” (a) US (USPTO) filed on 2009/10/20 with filing number: 12/581,965, Notice of Allowance on 2012/07/09; (b) Taiwan (ROC) filed on 2008/10/23 with filing number: 097140731.

    5. Tai, L. A.; Lo, L. W.; Yang, C. S.; Wang, Y. J.; Wu, Y. T.; Wang, Y. C. ”Transdermal Delivery Nanocapsules” (a) US (USPTO) issued on 2011/11/22 with patent number: US 8,062,663; (b) Taiwan (ROC) filed on 2009/05/21 with filing number:09811685, Notice of Allowance on 2012/06/26.

    6. Lin, S. Y.; Lo, L. W.; Yang, C. S. “Method for making a ligand-quantum dot conjugate” (a) US (USPTO) issued on 2012/07/10 with patent number: US8,216,549; (b) Taiwan (ROC) filed on 2009/7/22 with filing number:098124701.

    7. Lo, L. W.; Yang, C. S. “Blood flow control system, Tension adjustable Instrument and Method Thereof” (a) Taiwan (ROC) filed on 2008/07/14 with filing number: 97126701, Notice of Allowance on 2012/08/30; (b) US (USPTO) filed on 2008/05/30 with filing number: 12/219,973, Notice of Allowance on 2012/04/11.

    8. Lo, L. W.; Yang, C. S.; Chen, P. R.; Tsai, P. J. “A biodegradable material with nanopores and electric conductivity and the fabricating method thereof” (a) Taiwan (ROC) filed on 2007/01/05 with filing number: 96100482; (b) Europe (EPO) patent issued on 2009/10/14 with European patent No: 1970077 (Design state: United Kingdom).

    9. Lo, L. W.; Yang, C. S. “Implantable Microdevice for detecting, activating and delivering molecules” US (USPTO) filed on 2007/10/09 with filing number: 11/869,053.